Spatial determinants of productivity growth in agri-food Spanish firms: a comparision between cooperatives and investor-owned firms

Martínez-Victoria, M.C, Maté Sánchez-Val, M.L y Arcas Lario, N. (2018). "Spatial determinants of productivity growth on agri-food Spanish firms: a comparison between cooperatives and investor-owned firms", Agricultural Economics, 49, pp. 213-223.

Abstract

This study analyses the effect of the spatial factor, location, and interaction effects among peer companies, on the productivity growth of agri‐food companies in Spain. With this aim, we build a productivity growth index and apply a multiequational Seemingly Unrelated Regression on a sample of 344 Spanish cooperatives and investor‐owned firms for the period 2010–2012. Our findings show that agri‐food firms are influenced by spatial factors finding interesting differences between cooperatives and investor‐owned firms. With regard to the geographical location, cooperatives in the western of Spain show higher productivity growth rates, whereas investor‐owned firms in the northeast of Spain present better results. The interaction effect among closer peer companies is also a relevant factor to determine the productivity growth in agri‐food companies. This factor is more relevant for cooperatives than for investor‐owned firms. 

Keywords:

Agri-food companies; Geographical location; Malmquist productivity index; Seemingly unrelated regression; Spatial interaction

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Financial Behavior of Cooperatives and Investor-Owned Firms: An Empirical Analysis in the Spanish Fruit and Vegetable Sector

Martínez Victoria, M.C.; Arcas Lario, N. y Maté Sánchez-Val, M.L. (2017). ·”Financial Behavior of Cooperatives and Investor-Owned Firms: An Empirical Analysis in the Spanish Fruit and Vegetable Sector”, Agribusiness, 00, pp. 1-16.

Abstract:

A partial adjustment model was formulated to compare financial ratios between cooperatives and investor-owned firms from a dynamic perspective. Empirical results from a sample of Spanish fruit and vegetable firms for the period between 2009 and 2012 reveal different adjustment processes of current, debt, and return on assets ratios between cooperatives and IOFs. We find significant differences between these firms, with slower adjustment rates for current and debt ratios in cooperatives. These findings may arise from the weakness associated with ownership structure in cooperatives, which reduces their adjustment processes compared to those of IOFs. The identification of differences in adjustment processes between cooperatives and IOFs may provide us with additional information regarding the specific management characteristics of these agri-food firms, thus identifying those firms that are most dependent on external market conditions. 

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The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

María Martínez-Victoria, MariLuz Maté-Sánchez-Val, Narciso Arcas-Lario (2017). "The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth", Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 15(1), pp. 1-9.

Abstract
Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

Keywords:

Malmquist productivity index; spatial econometric modelling; spatial interaction effects.

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Spatial effects on the productive structure of Spanish agri-food cooperatives

María del Carmen Martínez-Victoria, Mari Luz Sánchez-Val, Narciso Arcas-Lario (2016). "Spatial effects on the productive structure of Spanish agri-food cooperatives". Outlook on Agriculture, 45(3), pp. 151-157.

Abstract

This article analyses the role of spatial effects on the productive growth of Spanish agri-food cooperatives. The study was based on a sample data from 172 Spanish cooperatives for the period 2010–2012. We applied the Malmquist productivity index method to compute the productivity growth and its components. We then developed a multi-equational productivity growth model with spatial effects. Our results show that the productivity growth in agri-food cooperatives depends on the geographical location of the company and its interaction with its neighbours. This analysis supports the importance of taking into account the spatial dimension when regional agri-food policies are designed, particularly, for cooperatives characterized by the inter-cooperation principle.

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The websites adoption in the Spanish agrifood firms

Erasmo I. López-Becerra, Narciso Arcas-Lario,  Francisco Alcon (2016). "The websites adoption in the Spanish agrifood firms", Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 14(4), pp. 1-10.

Abstract
Currently, the use of websites in the firms of the Spanish agrifood sector has not become widespread despite the possible benefits to be derived from their adequate integration and management within the firms. Among these advantages, the increase in the quality of the services offered and the improvement in the relations with their stakeholders should be highlighted. In this context, the objective of the present work is to determine to what extent websites are used by firms in the agrifood sector of Spain, analysing the background which explains why they are adopted and the consequences of introducing them. To do so, a theoretical framework is posed which allows these factors to be identified, and an empirical study is carried out with Spanish agrifood firms. The results of the work indicate that the adoption of websites will be favoured when the directors of the firm are higher qualified, the firm is bigger in size, the firm’s function is distribution, and when the relative advantage and technology compatibility is perceived, among others. Technology adoption consequences analysis suggests that the benefits of adoption are related with improving the relationships with suppliers, customers, owning partners and, in general, the quality of the services offered by the firm.

Keywords:

innovation; ICT; internet; Spain.

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"Uso y calidad de los sitios Web: evaluación en las empresas agroalimentarias murcianas"

López Becerra, E., Arcas Lario, N., Alcón Provencio, F. (2014): "Uso y calidad de los sitios Web: evaluación en las empresas agroalimentarias murcianas", Revista Española de Estudios Agrosociales y Pesqueros, 237, pp. 155-179.

Resumen:

El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en conocer el grado de uso que las empresas agroalimentarias de la Región de Murcia hacen de los sitios Web e identificar cómo el grado de uso y las características de las empresas (forma jurídica, sector de actividad y tamaño) condicionan la percepción de calidad de los mismos. Con esta finalidad, se realiza un estudio empírico con una muestra de 218 empresas agroalimentarias, aplicando una metodología de evaluación heurística. Las principales conclusiones destacan que la mayoría de las empresas de la Región hacen un uso esencialmente básico de su sitio Web, siendo su principal atractivo el empleo de reclamos, mientras que el uso de la Intranet, las Redes sociales y el comercio electrónico es escaso. El análisis revela que existe un margen considerable para mejorar la calidad de los sitios Web influenciado principalmente por el nivel de uso de los sitios Web.

Palabras clave:

Empresas agroalimentarias, Murcia, TIC, Internet, sitios Web, calidad.

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"La disposición a invertir en cooperativas agrarias: el papel de la heterogeneidad y el oportunismo de los socios"

Marcos Matás, G., Hernández Espallardo, M., Arcas Lario, N. (2014): "La disposición a invertir en cooperativas agrarias: el papel de la heterogeneidad y el oportunismo de los socios", Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales, 14, pp. 7-25.

Resumen:

La heterogeneidad y el oportunismo de los socios se presentan tradicionalmente como factores limitantes para la realización de inversiones y el desarrollo empresarial de las cooperativas. En este estudio contrastamos los efectos de diversos tipos de heterogeneidad de los socios sobre el oportunismo, y de ambos conceptos sobre la disposición a invertir en la cooperativa. Los resultados permiten destacar el efecto que cada tipo de heterogeneidad ejerce sobre la disposición a invertir de los socios en su cooperativa, y el papel mediador y directo que desempeña también el oportunismo sobre esta disposición.

Palabras clave:

Cooperativas agrarias, disposición a invertir, heterogeneidad, oportunismo, socios.

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"Farmers' Satisfaction with Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Marketing Spanish Cooperatives: An Explanatory from Agency Theory

Arcas Lario, N., Martín Uguedo, J.F., Mínguez Vera, A. (2014): "Farmers' Satisfaction with Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Marketign Spanish Cooperatives: An Explanation from Agency Theory," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 17 (1), pp. 127-146.

Abstract

Agricultural cooperatives have specific characteristics. Coop members many have different roles (owners, buyers, sellers and controllers) and, consequently, these players may have different objectives. The various stakeholders may also have different objectives from the management of the cooperative. This makes agency theory a good framework for the analysis of farmers' satisfaction with their cooperative. Based on a sample of 277 members of fruit and vegetable marketing cooperatives in Spain, the results show that members' satisfaction with the cooperative exerts a positive influence on members' desire to continue as members of that cooperative. The result also confirm the positive influence of trust, information and control on satisfaction.

Keywords: 

Agricultural cooperative, satisfacton, information, control, trust.

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"Tamaño y competitividad. Casos destacados de cooperativas agroalimentarias españolas"

Arcas Lario N, y Hernández Espallardo, M. (2013): "Tamaño y competitividad. Casos destacados de cooperativas agroalimentarias españolas", en: "El papel del cooperativismo agroalimentario en la economía mundial", Mediterráneo Económico, 24, pp. 205-229.

Resumen:

El tamaño de las cooperativas agroalimentarias, lejos de ser un fin en sí mismo, es un medio para que estas consigan sus objetivos. En el entorno en el que estas cooperativas desempañan su actividad en la actualidad, caracterizado por la globalización de los mercados y la concentración de sus clientes y proveedores, la dimensión puede no ser suficiente, pero es absolutamente necesaria. En este artículo se repasan algunos de los casos más destacados de cooperativas agroalimentarias españolas que han alcanzado una dimensión importante, avalando las ventajas del tamaño para mejorar su competitividad. En la selección de los casos se ha buscado una representación de las cooperativas en cuanto a su ubicación geográfica, sector de actividad y, sobre todo, la fórmula de crecimiento adoptada.

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"La financiación del sector agroalimentario y del cooperativismo"

García Torrente, R. (2013): "La financiación del sector agroalimentario y el cooperativismo", en: "El papel del cooperativismo agroalimentario en la economía mundial", Mediterráneo Económico, 24, pp. 231-245.

Presentación:

La agricultura tradicional, caracterizada por el minifundismo, la dispersión territorial y su escasa mercantilización, ha sufrido históricamente una relativa exclusión financiera. En la actualidad existe una oferta de financiación adecuada que permite al sector agroalimentario, en general, y a las cooperativas, en particular, acceder en las mismas condiciones que pueda obtener cualquier otra empresa o agente económico. La marginalidad y la relativa exclusión financiera que sufría el mundo rural español a principios del siglo XX fue superada y la expansión de la banca comercial y la consolidación de un ex¬tenso cooperativismo de crédito ha democratizado el acceso a los servicios financieros. En este sentido, Cajamar Caja Rural lidera un movimiento al que se han sumado unas cuarenta entidades de todo el territorio nacional, con el objetivo de seguir apoyando la modernización y tecnificación del sector agroalimentario español a través de un gran grupo de crédito cooperativo.

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